Lead-antimony batteries can withstand deep discharge, but because of large water dissipation, regular maintenance is required. During installation, the positive and negative plates are fitted with each other, a separator is inserted between them, and all the positive electrodes and all the negative electrodes are respectively connected with the plate connecting strips, so assembling, a single-cell storage battery is formed. The number of negative plates in a single cell battery is one more than that of positive plates. Regardless of how many positive and negative plates a single-cell battery contains, each single-cell battery can only provide a voltage of about 21V. The more the number of plates, the longer the battery can provide this voltage. The positive side of one cell is connected to the negative side of another cell in sequence with a chain (made of lead-antimony alloy), and finally a set of positive and negative electrodes are set aside as the positive and negative electrodes of the battery. In this way, a number of single cells are connected in series to form a storage battery. The thinner the plate thickness, the higher the utilization rate of the active material and the higher the capacity. The larger the plate area, the more substances involved in the reaction at the same time, and the greater the capacity. The smaller the center distance of the same-sex plate, the smaller the internal resistance of the battery and the larger the capacity. In order to reduce the size and internal resistance, the positive and negative plates should be as close as possible, but in order to avoid contact and short circuit, the positive and negative plates are separated by insulating separators. The separator is a porous material with stable chemical properties and good acid and oxidation resistance. Currently, glass fiber paper is used for maintenance-free lead-acid batteries.
The positive and negative plates are welded together with a lead alloy, and are installed in the battery slot to form a single battery. The separator is used to isolate the positive and negative plates to prevent short circuits. The electrolyte is mainly composed of pure water and sulfuric acid, mixed with some additives. Main functions: One is to participate in the electrochemical reaction, which is one of the active materials of the battery; the other is to play a conductive role, that is, when the battery is used, the ions in the electrolyte are transferred to play a conductive role, so that the electrochemical reaction can proceed smoothly. The safety valve is one of the key components of the battery. It is located on the top of the battery and functions as a seal. When the internal pressure of the battery is lower than the closing pressure of the safety valve, the safety valve is closed to prevent the internal gas acid mist from leaking out, and also to prevent air from entering the battery and causing adverse effects; similarly, when the gas pressure generated inside the battery reaches the safety valve pressure during use, the valve is opened to release the pressure to prevent battery deformation, rupture, oxygen recombination in the battery, and moisture loss.
The basic structure of alkaline storage batteries is the same as that of lead-acid storage batteries, including plates, separators, shells and electrolyte. Alkaline batteries can be divided into nickel-cadmium batteries and nickel-iron batteries according to their plate materials. The working principle is the same as that of lead-acid batteries, but the specific chemical reactions are different. Compared with lead batteries, alkaline batteries have the advantages of small size, deep discharge, resistance to overcharge and overdischarge, long service life, and simple maintenance.