Nickel-cadmium batteries use nickel hydroxide as the active material of the positive electrode, a mixture of cadmium and iron as the active material of the negative electrode, and the electrolyte is an aqueous potassium hydroxide solution. Compared with lead-acid batteries, the advantages of nickel-cadmium batteries: high specific energy, full discharge resistance, no need for over-capacity design; good mechanical properties; good low-temperature performance; low internal resistance, allowing large current output; allowing fast charging; stable voltage during discharge and easy to maintain. The disadvantage is that the price is more expensive than the lead-acid battery; the battery efficiency is low; if the battery is not fully discharged, a “memory effect” will appear; cadmium is poisonous and needs to be recycled after use.
The structure and principle of the nickel-cadmium battery are similar, but the difference is that the cadmium is replaced with a hydrogen storage alloy electrode. Its main advantages are: compared with the same volume of nickel-cadmium batteries, high capacity; compared with cadmium, using hydrogen storage alloy electrodes, there is no pollution problem caused by heavy metal cadmium; it has good overcharge and overdischarge performance.
The positive electrode is made of steel wool with active iron material, and the negative electrode is made of steel wool with active nickel material. Its main advantages are low price and long service life. The disadvantage is that the battery efficiency is low, the water consumption is high, the internal resistance is large, and the applicable temperature is limited, which is 0~40℃.
Other commonly used batteries
A battery in which the electrolyte is in a gel state is usually called a gel battery. The more commonly used colloidal battery is to add a gelling agent to the sulfuric acid electrolyte to make the sulfuric acid liquid become colloidal. The advantages of colloidal batteries are: ①Sealed structure, electrolyte gel, no leakage; ②No acid mist and pollution during charging and discharging; ③High capacity, increasing 10%~20% capacity compared with lead-acid batteries of the same level; ④Small self-discharge, resistant to storage; ⑤Good over-discharge recovery performance, large current discharge capacity increased by more than 30% than lead-acid batteries; ⑥Good low-temperature performance, meeting the start-up requirements of 30~50℃; ⑦High temperature characteristics are good and stable, which can meet the requirements of 65℃ or higher temperature environment; ⑧Long cycle life, can reach 800~1500 charging and discharging times.
As lead-acid batteries are causing more and more serious environmental pollution, the market’s demand for large-capacity and high-efficiency batteries has promoted the continuous development and progress of battery technology. The silicon energy storage battery uses liquid low-carbon steel silicon salt formation solution instead of sulfuric acid as the electrolyte, and no corrosive gas is generated during the production process, and the manufacturing process, the use process and the waste-free pollution are realized. The characteristics of high cold and high temperature resistance of silicon energy battery make it work normally even in extreme weather conditions. In addition, the material characteristics of silicon energy battery make it have the characteristics of short charging time and long service life.
Fuel cell (Fuel Cell) is a power generation device that directly converts the chemical energy in fuel and oxidant into electrical energy. From the outside, it has positive and negative electrodes and electrolytes, etc., like a battery, but in fact it cannot “storage” but a “power plant”. The fuel cell has high energy conversion efficiency, cleanness, no pollution, low noise, strong module structure, and high specific power. It can be used for centralized power supply or decentralized power supply. The fuel cell can be converted from the lowest power to the rated power in a few seconds.
In addition, there are zinc-silver batteries, lithium batteries and so on.